Orgasm and ejaculation are two separate physiological processes that are sometimes difficult to distinguish. Orgasm is an intense transient peak sensation of intense pleasure creating an altered state of consciousness Male orgasm control called maintain with reported physical changes.
Antegrade ejaculation is a complex physiological process that is composed of two phases emission and expulsionand is influenced by intricate neurological and hormonal pathways.
Despite the many published research projects dealing with the physiology of orgasm and ejaculation, much about this topic is still unknown. Ejaculatory dysfunction is a common disorder, and currently has no definitive cure. Understanding the complex physiology of orgasm and ejaculation allows the development of therapeutic targets for ejaculatory dysfunction. In this article, we summarize the current literature on the physiology of orgasm and ejaculation, starting with a brief "Male orgasm control called maintain" of the anatomy of sex organs and the physiology of erection.
Then, we describe the physiology of orgasm and ejaculation detailing the neuronal, neurochemical, and hormonal control of the ejaculation process. Ejaculatory dysfunction is one of the most common male sexual dysfunctions that is often mis-diagnosed or disregarded.
At present, there is no definitive cure for ejaculatory dysfunctions 1. New research on the physiology of ejaculation keeps emerging to identify targets of treatment.
However, knowledge this topic is still lacking. In the present article, we summarize the current literature on the physiology of ejaculation. We describe the anatomy of the organs involved and the erection physiology.
We discuss the physiology of orgasm and ejaculation as two separate physiological processes. In addition, we describe the neurochemical and hormonal regulation of the ejaculation process.
The male genital system consists of external and internal reproductive and sexual organs such as the penis, prostate, epididymis, and testes.
Figure 1 shows the gross anatomy of the ejaculatory structures. Table 1 provides a summary of the functional anatomy of these organs 2 — 5.
Gross anatomy of the ejaculation structures. Mulhall JP, Hsiao W, eds. Men's sexual health and Male orgasm control called maintain The penile erection results from complex neurovascular mechanisms. Several central and peripheral neurological factors in addition to molecular, vascular, psychological and endocrino-logical factors are involved, and the balance between these factors is what eventually determines the functionality of the penis.
In this section, we summarize some of those mechanisms. Cerebrally controlled penile erections
Male orgasm control called maintain induced through erotic visual stimuli or thoughts.
The main cerebral structures involved in erection are contained within the medial preoptic area MPOA and paraventricular nucleus PVN in the hypothalamus 6. Dopamine is the most important brain neurotransmitter for erection, likely through its stimulation of oxytocin release 7.
Parasympathetic stimulation is the main mediator for penile tumescence, although central suppression of the sympathetic nervous system also plays a role. Parasympathetic supply to the penis is derived from the sacral segments S2-S4 However, patients with sacral spinal cord injury still maintain erections through psychogenic stimulation, although of less rigidity than normal. These psychogenic erections do not occur in patients with lesions above T9 11suggesting that the main mechanism for these erections is central suppression of sympathetic stimulation Patients with lesions above T9 still may maintain reflexogenic erections.
This implies that the main mechanism for reflexogenic tumescence is the preservation of the sacral reflex arc, which mediates erection through tactile penile stimulation 13 The penis at baseline is in a flaccid state maintained by the contraction of corporal smooth muscles and Male orgasm control called maintain of cavernous and helicine arteries leading to moderate state of hypoxia with partial pressure of oxygen of 30—40
Male orgasm control called maintain Hg During sexual arousal, NO is released from cavernous nerve terminals through the action of neuronal NO synthase The NO activates guanylate cyclase, which in turn converts guanosine triphosphate to cyclic guanosine monophosphate 1517leading eventually to smooth muscle relaxation and vasodilation Although the initiation of tumescence is through neuronal NO synthase, the maintenance of erection is endothelial NO synthase There is no standard definition of orgasm.
Orgasm is generally associated with ejaculation, although the two processes are physiologically different Orgasm is also associated with powerful and highly pleasurable pelvic muscle contractions especially ischiocavernosus and bulbocavernosus 23along with rectal sphincter contractions and facial grimacing There is also an associated release and elevation in PRL and oxytocin levels after orgasm; however, the Male orgasm control called maintain of this elevation is not entirely clear Studies using positron emission tomography, which measures changes in regional cerebral blood flow, have identified areas of activation in the brain during orgasm.
Primary intense activation areas are noted to be in the mesodiencephalic transition zones, which includes the midline, the zona incerta, ventroposterior and intralaminar thalamic nuclei, the lateral segmental central field, the suprafascicular nucleus, and the ventral tegmental area. Strong increases were seen in the cerebellum. Decreases were noted at the entorhinal cortex and the amygdale Quality and intensity of orgasms are variable.
For instance, short fast buildup of sexual stimulation toward orgasm is associated with less intense orgasms than slow buildup. Early orgasms are less satisfying than later orgasms in life as the person learns to accept the pleasure associated with orgasms. Lower levels of androgen are associated with weaker orgasms, such as in hypogonadism or in "Male orgasm control called maintain" age It has been suggested that pelvic muscle exercises, particularly the bulbocavernosus and ischiocavernosus muscles, through contracting those muscles 60 times, 3 times daily for 6 weeks will enhance the pleasure associated with orgasm However, the effort and time associated with such exercises prevent their utilization.
The orgasm induced through deep prostatic massage is thought to be different from the orgasm associated direct penile stimulation. Although penile stimulation orgasms are associated with 4—8 pelvic muscle contractions, prostatic massage orgasms are associated with 12 contractions. Prostatic massage orgasms Male orgasm control called maintain thought to be more intense and diffuse than penile stimulation orgasms, but they require time and practice and are not liked by many men 2026 Following orgasm in men is a temporary period of inhibition of erection or ejaculation called the refractory period.
This is a poorly understood phenomenon, with some investigators suggesting a central rather than spinal mechanism causing it Elevated levels of PRL and serotonin after orgasm have been suggested as a potential cause; however, there is much debate about their exact role More research is still needed in the area of male orgasm Ejaculation is a physiological process heavily controlled by the autonomic nervous system.
It consists of two main phases: The main organs involved in ejaculation are the distal epididymis, the vas deferens, the seminal vesicle, the prostate, the prostatic urethra, and the bladder neck The first step in the emission phase is the closure of bladder neck to retrograde spillage of the seminal fluid into the bladder.
Subsequently, the fructose-containing seminal vesicle fluid alkalinizes the final ejaculatory fluid. The organs involved in the ejaculation process receive dense autonomic nerve supply, both sympathetic and parasympathetic, from the pelvic plexus. The pelvic plexus is located retroperitoneally on either side of the rectum, lateral and posterior to the seminal vesicle It receives neuronal input from the hypogastric and pelvic nerves in addition to the caudal paravertebral sympathetic chain The sympathetic neurons play the predominant role in the ejaculation process.
The role of the hypogastric plexus in emission is best demonstrated clinically by the loss of emission after non-nerve sparing para-aortic lymph node dissection for testicular cancer 35and induction of emission in men through electrical stimulation of superior hypogastric plexus Input from genital stimulation is Male orgasm control called maintain at the neural sacral spinal level to produce emission The emission phase of ejaculation is also under a considerable cerebral control, and can be induced through physical or visual erotic stimulation Expulsion follows emission as the process of ejaculation climaxes, and refers to the ejection of semen through the urethral meatus.
The semen is propelled through the rhythmic contractions of the pelvic striated muscles in addition to the bulbospongiosus and ischiocavernosus muscles To achieve antegrade semen expulsion, the bladder neck remains closed, whereas the external urethral sphincter is open. The external sphincter and the pelvic musculature are under somatic control; however, there is no evidence that voluntary control plays a role in the expulsion process The exact trigger for expulsion is unknown.
It has been suggested that a spinal center is triggered during emission of seminal fluid into the prostatic urethra However, there is mounting evidence through clinical and experimental studies to suggest that this is not the case. This, in addition to the identification of spinal generator for ejaculation SGE in rats, led to the postulation that the process of expulsion is a continuum of the process initiated through emission, after reaching a certain spinal activation threshold 30 Ejaculation is heavily controlled by the nervous system.
Figure 2 summarizes the reflex circuit necessary to elicit ejaculation. Reflex circuit needed to establish ejaculation. The main sensory input from the penis comes from the dorsal nerve of the penis, which transmits sensation from the glans, prepuce, and penile shaft. It transmits signals to the upper and lower segments of the sacral spinal cord The glans contains encapsulated nerve endings, termed Krause-Finger corpuscles, whereas the remaining penile shaft contains free Male orgasm control called maintain endings.
Stimulation of these corpuscles potentiated by stimulation from other genital areas, such the perineum, testes, and Male orgasm control called maintain shaft, play an important role in the ejaculation process A secondary afferent route is through the hypogastric nerve, which runs through the paravertebral sympathetic chain to enter the cord through the thoracolumbar dorsal roots The sensory afferents terminate in the medial dorsal horn and the dorsal gray commissure of the spinal cord The efferent peripheral nervous system constitutes of sympathetic, parasympathetic, and motor nervous components The soma of the preganglionic sympathetic cell bodies involved in "Male orgasm control called maintain" are located in the intermedio-lateral cell column and in the central autonomic region of the thoracolumbar segments TL1 The preganglionic sympathetic fibers emerge from the ventral roots of the spinal cord and travel through the paravertebral sympathetic chain to relay either directly through the splanchnic nerve, or through relaying first in the celiac superior mesenteric ganglia and then through the intermesenteric nerve, to the inferior mesenteric ganglia The hypogastric nerve then emanates from the inferior mesenteric ganglia to join the parasympathetic pelvic nerve to form the pelvic plexus, which then sends fibers to the ejaculation structures The preganglionic parasympathetic cell bodies are located in the sacral parasympathetic nucleus.
The sacral parasympathetic nucleus neurons travel then in the pelvic nerve to the post-ganglionic parasympathetic cells located in the pelvic plexus. The SGE contains spinal interneurons called lumbar spinothalamic cells, which project fibers to the parvocellular subparafascicular nucleus of the thalamus in addition to preganglionic sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons innervating the pelvis The SGE stimulation elicits a complete ejaculatory response resulting in collection of motile spermatozoa in anesthetized rats Further research on the SGE spinal center is still needed, and it is unclear whether it contains other cells than lumbar spinothalamic cells.
Sensory and motor areas in the brain play an important role in the ejaculation, which requires a highly coordinated and integrated central process. The study by Holstege et al. If a guy won't agree to keep his hands off, Perelman will urge him at least to alter his Masturbation may also help men learn to control their level of arousal, which also known as the "penis grip," to quell the desire to climax. The affected man may regularly experience delays in orgasm, or may be unable to The cycle of sexual response is under the control
Male orgasm control called maintain a interplay excessive production of hormone that induces lactation called prolactin).
Hi there, nice information provided. thanks for that. keep posting of blogs in the. Cerebrally controlled penile erections are induced through erotic visual stimuli or thoughts. The penis at baseline is in a flaccid state maintained by the contraction of period of inhibition of erection or ejaculation called the refractory period.
More research is still needed in the area of male orgasm (20).
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