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FGM is a violation of the human rights of women and girls as recognized in numerous international and regional human rights instruments. While early human rights instruments do not specifically refer to FGM, they provide a foundation for the right of women to be free from various forms of violence, including FGM. In addition to the specific human rights instruments included in this section below, there is an Genitle mutilation bdsm accepted interpretation that the practice of FGM is an infringement upon broader categories of identified rights into which those instruments may fit.

The practice of FGM fits within the definition of discrimination against women as set forth in various human rights instruments as a practice exclusively directed towards women and girls with the effect of interfering with their enjoyment of their fundamental rights. Furthermore, FGM causes great short-term and long-term physical and mental harm to its victims and perpetuates the fundamental discriminatory belief of the subordinate role of women and girls.

Article 2 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states: The practice of FGM is often a deeply rooted custom and in areas where the practice is required or prevalent, there is substantial pressure Genitle mutilation bdsm undergo FGM.

Often it is a prerequisite to marriage and required for acceptance within the community. Governments enacting legislation to prohibit the practice must acknowledge that not undergoing FGM may also subject women to further discrimination as they Genitle mutilation bdsm ostracized or not able Genitle mutilation bdsm marry.

The right to physical integrity includes the right to freedom from torture, inherent dignity of the person, the right to liberty and security of the person, and the right to privacy. This category of rights is protected by various human rights instruments including: Because FGM can result in severe physical and mental harm and because it constitutes an invasive procedure on otherwise healthy tissue without any medical necessity, it is seen as a violation of the right to health.

Because FGM predominantly affects girls under the age of 18, the issue is fundamentally one of protection of the rights of children. The Convention on the Rights of the Child CRC, acknowledges the role of parents and family in making decisions for children, but places the ultimate responsibility for protecting the rights of a child in the hands of the government. Togo explicitly directs governments to enact legislation that Genitle mutilation bdsm abolish the practice of FGM as it is a violation of the rights of children.

In addition to recognizing that FGM violates these fundamental rights, numerous instruments establish that governments have a duty to prohibit the practice and protect women and Genitle mutilation bdsm vulnerable to the practice.

This duty is fulfilled by enacting legislation and implementing other methods of social and cultural education.

Legislation should be enacted that encompasses these fundamental rights and governmental duties related to the practice of FGM:. More recently, human rights instruments are explicitly referencing the practice of FGM as an act of violence against women and mandating state parties to prohibit the practice.

Some examples are set forth below.

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Whatever the common justifications for the practice of FGM, cultural or religious, FGM causes great short-term and long-term physical and mental harm to its victims and perpetuates the fundamental discriminatory belief of the subordinate role of women and girls. The country reports of the Committee on the Rights of the Child consistently recognize FGM as a harmful traditional practice that is against the best interests of the child and repeatedly call for its elimination.

Concluding Observations of the Committee on the Rights of the Child: EthiopiaPara. SudanPara. TogoPara. Also urges States to review and, where appropriate, revise, amend or abolish all laws, regulations, policies, practices and customs, in particular female genital mutilation, that discriminate against women and girls or have a discriminatory impact on women and girls and to ensure that provisions of multiple legal systems, where they exist, comply with international human rights obligations, commitments and principles, including the principle of non-discrimination.

Calls upon States to develop policies, protocols and rules to ensure the effective implementation of national legislative frameworks on eliminating discrimination and violence against women Genitle mutilation bdsm girls, Genitle mutilation bdsm particular female genital mutilation, and to put in place adequate accountability mechanisms at the national and local levels to monitor adherence to and implementation of these legislative frameworks.

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The resolution also emphasizes the need for education and training of families, community and religious leaders, and members of all professions relevant to the protection and empowerment of women and girls, including health-care providers, social workers, police officers, legal and judicial personnel and prosecutors. Article 5 - Elimination of Harmful Practices.

States Parties Genitle mutilation bdsm prohibit and condemn all forms of harmful practices which negatively affect the human rights of women and which are contrary to recognized international standards.

Female genital mutilation (FGM), also...

States Parties shall take all necessary legislative and Genitle mutilation bdsm measures to eliminate such practices, including: The Resolution also encourages preventative measures, including: UN Treaty Monitoring Committees. The following UN treaty monitoring committees Genitle mutilation bdsm issued statements interpreting human rights instruments to recognize FGM as a violation of human rights and a form of violence against women. They also mandate the elimination of FGM:.

Sources of international human rights law on Female Genital Mutilation Categories of fundamental human rights and duties FGM is a violation of the human rights of women and girls as recognized in numerous international and regional human rights instruments.

The right to life and physical integrity, including freedom from violence The right to physical integrity includes the right to freedom from torture, inherent dignity of the person, the right to liberty and security of the person, and the right to privacy.

The right to Genitle mutilation bdsm Because FGM Genitle mutilation bdsm result in severe physical and mental harm and because it constitutes an invasive procedure on otherwise healthy tissue without any medical necessity, it is seen as a violation of the right to health.

The rights of the child Because FGM predominantly affects girls under the age of 18, the issue is fundamentally one of protection of the rights of children. Legislation should be enacted that encompasses these fundamental rights and governmental duties related to the practice of FGM: International instruments The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, provides a broad foundation for the protection of women against the practice of FGM.

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More generally, Article 28 states: These Genitle mutilation bdsm note the severe health and other consequences for women and girls subjected to FGM, identify FGM as a form of violence against women, and recommend that state parties take measures to eliminate the practice of FGM.

UN Treaty Monitoring Committees The Convention on the Rights of the Child CRC, places in the government the ultimate responsibility for ensuring that the fundamental rights of children are recognized and protected.

Furthermore, the United Nations General Assembly has repeatedly called for more attention to the practice of FGM and more efforts by states for its elimination and protection of Genitle mutilation bdsm and girls from the practice. It urged states to organize a systematic and comprehensive approach to the problem, including: It noted that girls and women are particularly at risk in conflict or post-conflict situations. States were urged to collect and analyze data on violence against women and girls, and the Secretary-General was requested to establish a coordinated database which would contain information provided by states on all aspects of policies, laws, and programs on violence against women and girls.

The United Nations General Assembly at its 67th Session drafted a revised draft resolution on Intensifying global efforts for the elimination of female genital mutilation. The resolution urges all countries to condemn the practice of FGM, to implement and enforce legislation banning FGM, and to establish programs raising awareness about FGM.

The resolution further calls for all countries to allocate the necessary resources to Genitle mutilation bdsm women and girls from FGM, including refugee women and women migrants. This resolution recognizes that female genital mutilation is a human rights violation that results in Genitle mutilation bdsm harm and constitutes a serious threat to the health of women and girls.

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The resolution sets forth specific multi-level State recommendations in order to eliminate FGM. The resolution calls on States to condemn the practice, enact and enforce legislation prohibiting FGM as well as penalties for violations of prohibitions.

In addition, the resolution: Calls on the Council, Commission and Member States to carry out an in-depth enquiry to ascertain the extent of this phenomenon in the Genitle mutilation bdsm States. Calls on the Commission to draw up a complete strategy in order to eliminate the practice of female genital mutilation in the European Union, which should go beyond merely denouncing these acts and establish both legal and Genitle mutilation bdsm and also preventative, educational and social mechanisms to enable women who are or are likely to be victims to obtain real protection.

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Legislative measures to allow judges or public prosecutors to adopt precautionary and preventative measures if they are aware of cases of women or girls at risk of being mutilated.

Administrative provisions concerning health centres and the medical profession, educational centres and social workers, as well as codes of conduct, decrees and ethical codes, to ensure that health professionals, social workers, teachers and educators report Genitle mutilation bdsm of which they are aware…of people…who need protection.

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A preventative strategy of social action aimed at protecting minors without stigmatizing immigrant communities. Among them is the practice of female genital mutilation, which is a violation of basic rights and a major lifelong risk to women's health. In addition states must involve all relevant Genitle mutilation bdsm in the implementation of the Istanbul Convention, including national parliaments and institutions and non-governmental and civil society organizations.

The Convention will enter into force once ten countries have ratified it. Eight of the ten ratifying countries must be Council of Europe member states. Although this Convention was regionally drafted, any nation can become a signatory.

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An ongoing list of signatures and ratifications can be found here. Available here in 28 languages. UN Treaty Monitoring Committees The following UN treaty monitoring committees have issued statements interpreting human rights instruments to recognize FGM as a violation of human rights and a form of violence against women.

They also mandate the elimination of FGM: TogoPara International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights: Concluding Observations of the Human Rights Committee: Equality of rights between men and women article 3Para. Fourth World Conference on Women specifically advocate for countries to enact policy, legislation and Genitle mutilation bdsm to end the practice of FGM. Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action: Fourth World Conference on WomenParas. Fourth World Conference on Womenstates: Where you are Legislation.

Genitle mutilation bdsm Principles for Developing Legislation.


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