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Fat black women legs

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The association between regional fat mass distribution and cardiometabolic risk factors has been inconsistent in the literature, and data for ethnic minority groups, such as non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics, are lacking.

Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry DXA. We evaluated the correlation between Fat black women legs fat indices and adiposity-related risk factors, as well as the association of these indices with metabolic syndrome MetS.

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Our results show that leg fat accumulation is inversely associated Fat black women legs adiposity-related biological factors and risk of MetS in both whites and ethnic groups, suggesting that regional fat distribution plays an important role in the etiology of adiposity-related diseases in these populations.

Over the past three decades, the prevalence of overweight and obesity has tripled in the United States, resulting in a serious public health problem, which has placed a substantial burden on the healthcare system 1. Obesity is an important risk factor for the morbidity and mortality of many chronic diseases. Numerous studies have consistently shown that total body fat, particularly abdominal fat accumulation, has been strongly associated with elevated levels of several cardiometabolic risk factors 1 and increased risk of metabolic syndrome MetS 2type 2 diabetes 3 and cardiovascular disease CVD 4.

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On the other hand, rich data also suggest that fat accumulation in leg or other peripheral regions may possess potentially beneficial effects on cardiometabolic health, 5 - 18 although these studies were conducted primarily among whites or Asians.

It is largely unknown whether leg fat distribution is associated with cardiometabolic outcomes among other ethnicities with different body fat distribution and metabolic risk, such as non-Hispanic blacks or Hispanics. In the Fat black women legs investigation, we utilized the same data to comprehensively examine various leg fat indices in relation to adiposity-related factors and risk of MetS by ethnicity in this large nationally representative sample of US adults.

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This study was conducted using data from 3 representative cross-sectional NHANES surveys that included 31 individuals randomly selected from the total civilian, noninstitutionalized US population. African Americans, Mexican Americans, and elderly residents were oversampled to provide more accurate estimates of their characteristics, and each respondent was assigned a weight based on geographic and demographic characteristics to allow for the calculation of population-based estimates.

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All procedures were approved by the National Center for Health Statistics Institutional Review Board, and all subjects provided written informed consent. After these exclusions, participants remained in the analysis, and, of them, of these participants had one or more missing DXA measurements imputed.

Body weight, standing height, and waist circumference were assessed by direct measurement following a standard protocol Missing DXA data were imputed using sequential regression multivariate imputation. Because the amount of missing data varied for these biological factors, to preserve statistical power as much as possible, we used all available data for each of these factors Thus the sample size differed for each factor: Demographic characteristics such as age, gender, ethnicity, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and physical activity were ascertained by using questionnaire.

We examined all continuous variables for outliers and log-transformed these variables to improve normality. Sampled-weighted partial Pearson correlation coefficients were computed to examine the Fat black women legs among DXA indices and between leg fat indices and the cardiometabolic risk factors.


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